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Common Childhood Illnesses

Here are some illnesses that children often get. All of these spread from person to person. The table shows the following:

  • Disease: The name your health care professional will call it.
  • Symptoms: The signs of sickness your child will have or show.
  • Spread: The way your child can get or spread the disease.
  • Infectious: The time when your child is most likely to get or spread the disease.
  • Exclusion: When your child is not allowed to attend school, nursery or day care, with this illness.

Disease

Symptoms

How it’s spread

Infectious

Exclusion

Chicken Pox Fever

Small, fluid filled spots that look like tiny blisters

By an infected person coughing or sneezing

By touching the fluid in the blisters before the blisters are dry

1-2 days before the spots appear

up to 6 days after the spots start

Until feeling well and the blisters are crusted over and dry
Fifth Disease Mild fever

Aches

Tiredness

Cold-like symptoms

A red face rash “slapped cheeks” appears.

Rash may spread to the body

By contact with the nose and throat secretions of an infected person

The virus can pass from an infected pregnant woman to her unborn baby

 

 

Before the rash appears. Probably not contagious after the rash appears.

 

 

 

 

Only if not well enough to participate

Exposed pregnant women should contact their doctor.

 

 

German Measles (Rubella) Mild fever

Runny nose

Swollen glands

Sometimes followed by a mild red rash

By an infected person coughing or sneezing.

By contact with the nose and throat secretions of an infected person.

The virus can pass from an infected pregnant woman to her unborn baby.

From 7 days before until 7 days after the rash first appears

 

 

 

 

Until 7 days after the rash first appears

Exposed pregnant women should contact their doctor

Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease

(Coxsackievirus Disease)

Fever

Sore throat

Sore(s) in the mouth

May be sore on the gums, tongue, palms fingers and soles of the feet

By contact with the nose and throat secretions and/or faeces (stool/bowel movement) of an infected person

 

While symptoms are present (However, the virus can continue to shed in the stool for weeks)

 

 

Only if not well enough to participate

 

 

 

Impetigo Pus filled pimples that crust over

These are usually located on the face but may be on other parts of the body not covered by clothes (arms and/or legs)

By person to person through direct contact with secretions from the sores of an infected person From onset of skin infection until 24 hours after a specific antibiotic has been started Until a full 24 hours after antibiotic treatment has been started
Measles
(Red Measles)
High fever

Runny nose

Cough

Inflamed eyes

Small red spots with bluish-white centers inside the mouth (Koplik spots)

After about 4 days, a bright, red, raised blotchy rash appears

By an infected person coughing or sneezing

By contact with the nose or throat secretions of an infected person

 

 

 

From 4 days before onset of symptoms until 4 days after the rash appears

 

 

 

 

 

Until 4 days after the rash first appears

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mumps Fever

Swollen salivary glands (below the ears)

By an infected person coughing or sneezing

By contact with the nose or throat secretions of an infected person

From 7 days before until 9 days after the swelling appears Until 9 days after the swelling first appears

 

Pinkeye
(Conjunctivitis)
Scratchy, painful eye(s) and tearing with pus

Whites of the eyes turn pink or red

After sleep, eyelids are often stuck together from the pus

By contact with the eye pus of an infected person

By contact with the nose or throat secretions of an infected person

For duration of illness or until 24 hours after antibiotic treatment has been started Until 24 hours after antibiotic treatment has been started

 

Scabies Very itchy rash (mites burrow under the skin and deposit eggs & faeces/poop in black-red bumps)

In children over 2 years, the rash is usually on fingers, elbows, armpits and tummy.

Younger children may have rash on the entire body.

By touching someone who has scabies.

By sharing clothing or bedding of someone who has scabies.

By using other personal items of someone who has scabies.

Until mites and eggs are killed.

Treatment is applied to the skin usually two times, one week apart

Treatment is by the same product that is used for head lice.

Until the day after one treatment has been applied.

Close contacts may also need treatment

 

 

Scarlet Fever (Scarlatina) Sore throat

Fever

Chills

Vomiting

Headache

Pink- red rash that feels like sandpaper that starts on the upper body and may spread to cover the whole body

“Strawberry tongue” (whitish coating on tongue with bright red patch).

By an infected person sneezing or coughing

By contact with the nose or throat secretions of an infected person.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Until full 24 hours after a specific antibiotic treatment has been started

If infected person is untreated infectious period is 10-21 day

 

 

 

 

 

Until antibiotic treatment has been taken for a full 24 hours

 

 

 

 

 

 

Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Severe coughing spells followed by a high-pitched whoop and often vomiting.

Mild symptoms in older children, often thought to be a “bad cold”

By an infected person sneezing or coughing

By contact with nose or throat secretions of an infected person

From 2 weeks before and up to 3 weeks after the onset of cough (if untreated), OR until 5 days after treatment with a specific antibiotic Until 5 days after treatment with a specific antibiotic

If untreated, for duration of whoop (usually lasting 3 weeks)

Head Lice Itchy feeling on head

Feeling something moving on head (small insects)

White spots attached to hair close to scalp, behind ears and near neck

Sharing hats, headphones, helmets, or just close head to head contact Until the nits and lava are killed and cleared

Treatment is complete

According to the policy of the facilities including schools, daycare, and after school care.
Norovirus Sudden onset diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, headache, or low grade fever. Direct contact with infected people.

Touching contaminated surfaces eg. Door handles and shopping carts.

Contaminated food.

Virus can be spread up to 48 hours after client feels better, which can last 24-48 hours. Stay home if ill.

If you are a food handler, do not prepare food for others.

Further restrictions may include staying home until you are symptom free for 48 hours.

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