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Health Topics - Diseases

  • Campylobacter Enteritis

    (C. Jejeuni) PDF/Printer friendly version What is it? Campylobacter Enteritis is a bacterial disease of the small intestine most commonly caused by an organism called Campylobacter jejeuni (C. jejeuni). It occurs worldwide and is commonly found to be a cause of travellers’ diarrhea. In Canada and other industrialized countries, it occurs more often in children […]

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  • Chlamydia

    PDF/Printer Friendly Version Chlamydia  (Cla-mid-ee-uh) is the name of the bacteria that cause the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD).  Chlamydia is much like gonorrhea and in the past, the two diseases were often confused with one another. It may take one to six weeks for symptoms to show up.  However, some people never have […]

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  • Clostridium Difficile (C. Difficile)

    PDF/Printer Friendly Version What is it? C. difficile is a bacterium that produces a toxin (a type of poison) that can cause an inflammation of the intestinal tract. It is the most common cause of hospital-acquired infectious diarrhea. C. difficile can be part of the normal bacteria that live in the intestine. It can also […]

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  • Common Childhood Illnesses

    Here are some illnesses that children often get. All of these spread from person to person. The table shows the following: Disease: The name your health care professional will call it. Symptoms: The signs of sickness your child will have or show. Spread: The way your child can get or spread the disease. Infectious: The […]

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  • Cryptosporidiosis

    What is it? Cryptosporidiosis (krip-toh-spo-ri-dee-oh-sus) is an illness caused by microscopic, single celled parasites, Cryptosporidium. When the parasite enter the body, it lives in the intestine and is passed in the feces (stool). Cryptosporidium causes the diarrheal disease Cryptosporidiosis. It’s occurrence is worldwide. How is cryptosporidiosis spread? Cryptosporidium is shed in the feces of infected […]

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  • Cyclosporiasis

    Printer/Friendly Version What is it? Cyclosporiasis is a bowel infection. It is caused by a parasite called Cyclospora cayetanensis (SIGH-clo-SPORE-uh KYE-uh-tuh-NEN-sis). This parasite is so tiny it can only be seen by a microscope. The first known human cases of illness caused by this parasite were reported in 1979. Reporting of this illness became more […]

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  • Diseases


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  • Diseases A to Z

    The term disease broadly refers to any condition that impairs the normal functioning of the body. For this reason, diseases are associated with the dysfunction of the body’s normal homeostatic processes (the state of steady internal, physical, chemical, and social conditions maintained by living systems.) Though disease often refers to infectious disease (such as measles or tuberculosis) which may be acute […]

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  • ESBL

    PDF/Printer Friendly Version What is it? Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) microbes are specific bacteria that produce enzymes (extended spectrum beta lactamases) that can break down many common antibiotics, making the antibiotics ineffective. ESBL microbes have been present in Europe and the USA for almost 20 years. Only recently have these bacteria been detected in […]

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  • Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE)

    PDF/Printer Friendly Version Also known as sleeping sickness, Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEv) is a zoonotic virus found in North, Central and South America as well as the Caribbean. In particular, transmission is most common around freshwater, hardwood swamps and coastal plains including the Great Lakes region as well as the Atlantic and Gulf Coast […]

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  • Ebola

    The current outbreak of Ebola is in West Africa. Ebola does not spread easily from person to person and is not spread through casual contact. Ebola is spread through direct contact with infectious bodily fluids. There have not been any cases of Ebola in Canada. The risk to Canadians is very low. For more information […]

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  • Escherichia coli (E. coli)

    PDF/Printer Friendly Version E. Coli 0157 What is it? E.coli 0157:H7 is a strain of E.coli that produces a toxin and can cause severe illness. Most other strains of E.coli are harmless and live in the intestines of healthy animals and humans. How is it spread? People usually become infected with E.coli 0157:H7 by eating […]

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  • Fifth Disease (Parvovirus B19)

    PDF/Printer Friendly Version What is it? Fifth disease is sometimes called “slapped cheek” syndrome because of the red rash it causes. It is a common infection of the airway and lungs. It’s most common in late winter to early spring. Signs and symptoms? There may be no symptoms or mild symptoms that may include: Low-grade […]

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  • Genital Herpes

    PDF/Printer Friendly Version What is it? Genital Herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV). There are two types of herpes virus that can cause genital herpes, Type 1 (HSV-1) and Type 2 (HSV-2). In the past, HSV-1 was usually known as the cause of cold sores or fever blisters […]

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  • Giardiasis

    PDF/Printer Friendly Version What is it? Giardiasis is an infection of the upper small intestine caused by an organism called Giardia lamblia that occurs as cysts in the feces. It occurs worldwide and it affects children more often than adults. It is more common in areas of poor sanitation and institutions where children are not […]

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  • Gonorrhea

    PDF/Printer Friendly Version What is Gonorrhea? Gonorrhea is a bacterial infection that can be serious if not treated early, especially for women. Gonorrhea in women, if left untreated could lead to a painful, long-term condition called PID (pelvic inflammatory disease) and infertility (the inability to have children). Gonorrhea can also cause sterility in men if scar tissue blocks the tube […]

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  • HIV

    Aids/HIV Facts Blood and Body exposure for PSS Operators

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  • Hand, Foot, Mouth Disease

    (Coxsackie Virus) What is it? Both hand, foot and mouth disease and herpangina are infections caused by the Coxsackie virus. In Herpangina small red spots that become ulcers appear at the back of the mouth. In hand, foot and mouth disease, the rash can appear as small red, blisters on the hands, feet, mouth or […]

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  • Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    PDF/Printer Friendly Version What is it? Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is a serious and often fatal respiratory disease caused by exposure to the Hantavirus. Prior to 1993, little was known about this illness. Now it is closely monitored by public health and natural resource personnel in Canada and the United States. Hantavirus is found in […]

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  • Hepatitis A

    PDF/Printer Friendly Version What is it? Hepatitis A is a very contagious virus that causes a liver infection. What does it look like? Hepatitis A disease differs from person to person. Many people, especially children who become infected, have very mild symptoms or none at all. People who do get sick, usually have symptoms of […]

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  • Hepatitis B

    Hepatitis B is a serious infection of the liver and is caused by the hepatitis B virus.

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  • Hepatitis C

    Hepatitis C is a disease that affects the liver and is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV).

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  • Histoplasmosis

    PDF/Printer Friendly Version What is it? Histoplasmosis is a yeast disease in humans caused by inhaling spores of a fungus (mould) called Histoplasma capsulatum. H.capsulatum grows in soil throughout the world. The mould seems to grow best in soil having high nitrogen content, especially enriched with bird, chicken or bat droppings. What are the symptoms? […]

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  • Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

    PDF/Printer Friendly Version General Information What is Human Papillomavirus (HPV)? The human papillomaviruses (HPV) are a group of viruses that cause genital warts, cervical abnormalities and cervical, vaginal and anal cancers. There are many different types of HPV, some of which cause warts and some of which cause cervical abnormalities, cervical cancer and other cancers. […]

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  • Impetigo

    PDF/Printer Friendly Version What is it? Impetigo is a common childhood skin infection that is usually caused by bacteria called group A streptococcal (strep) or Staphylococcus aureus (staph). Infection happens when the bacteria enters the skin through an open area (like a bug bite). Sign and Symptoms? Impetigo usually appears around the mouth, nose or […]

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  • Infectious Mononucleosis

    PDF/Printer Friendly Version What is it? Infectious mononucleosis is a common viral illness caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). It occurs worldwide and is often diagnosed in the teenage and young adult population due to social behaviours of this age group. In young children the disease is usually very mild and more difficult to diagnose. By […]

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  • Listeriosis

    PDF/Printer Friendly Version What is it? Listeriosis is a bacterial disease caused by the bacteria Listeria monocytogenes. These bacteria are found naturally in soil, groundwater and plants, and can also be found in feed for horse and cattle and silage. Infected domestic and wild mammals, fowl and people can carry these bacteria. How is it […]

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  • Lyme Disease

      What is Lyme disease? Lyme disease is a bacterial infection transmitted to humans by a bite from an infected blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis), commonly referred to as deer ticks. What does the tick look like? The blacklegged tick is very small and in the larval stage is about the size of a period on […]

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  • Lymphogranuloma Venereum (LGV)

    PDF/Printer Friendly Version What is LGV? LGV (Lymphogranuloma venereum) is an infection caused by the same bacteria that causes Chlamydia, a common sexually transmitted infection (STI). The infections caused by LGV are often more serious than chlamydia, cause different symptoms, and have different results if left untreated. LGV was a rare STI in Canada, but […]

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  • MRSA

    PDF/Printer Friendly Version (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus) What is MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus)? Staphylococcus aureus are bacteria that are commonly found on people’s skin, in the nose, armpits and groins. About three or four out of every 10 people carry this bacterium in their nose without causing an infection or disease. This is known as the […]

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  • Measles (German Measles, Rubella)

    PDF What is it? This form of measles is caused by the Rubeola Virus. Your child is more likely to develop Rubeola if they have not been vaccinated or if they travel to other countries without being vaccinated. It occurs most often in the late winter and spring. Signs and Symptoms? Common symptoms include: Fever […]

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  • Meningococcal Meningitis

    PDF/Printer Friendly Version What is it? Meningitis and meningococcemia are two rare but serious infections caused by bacteria called neisseria meningitidis. The bacteria enter the body through the nose and throat and may cause an infection of the bloodstream (meningococcemia) and/or an infection of the covering of the brain and spinal cord(meningitis). Rapid medical assessment and treatment […]

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  • Monkeypox

      Monkeypox is a viral infection that can be transmitted through close contact with lesions, body fluids, respiratory droplets and contaminated items from an infected person or animal. Monkeypox is usually a mild illness and symptoms often resolve over a few weeks. The illness usually begins with the following symptoms: Fever Chills Headache Muscle aches […]

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  • Mumps

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  • Norovirus

    PDF What is Norovirus? Norovirus is a very contagious source of non-bacterial diarrhea and vomiting. The illness can occur at any time of the year but is most common in the fall and winter months. Signs and Symptoms Sudden onset include watery diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, headache, or low-grade fever. Can last for 24 […]

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  • Pertussis (whooping cough)

    PDF/Printer Friendly Version What is it? Pertussis is an infection in the airways caused by bacteria. Signs and symptoms Symptoms start as a common cold with: Sneezing, runny nose, mild fever and a mild cough The cough gets progressively worse. The cough is severe, repeated and forceful. The coughing periods are often followed by vomiting […]

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  • Pink Eye (conjunctivitis)

    PDF/Printer Friendly Version What is it? Pinkeye is an infection of the covering of the eyeball. Pink eye is most often caused by viral infections associated with the common cold. It can also be caused by bacterial infections or allergies. Children with bacterial pink eye should take antibiotic drops or ointment. These are not needed […]

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  • Pinworm infection

    PDF/Printer Friendly Version What is it? Pinworms are tiny, white, thread-like worms that live in the rectum. Signs and Symptoms? The worms crawl out of the anus (bum) at night and lay their eggs on nearby skin. Pinworms can be uncomfortable but they do not cause disease. Some children get very itchy around the anus […]

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  • Rabies

      Low Cost Rabies Clinics The Haldimand and Norfolk Counties are not hosting low-cost rabies clinics at this time. For more information about low-cost rabies clinics offered in neighbouring municipalities please refer to Rabies Vaccine Clinic Listings- Ontario, Canada Raccoon Rabies Update The raccoon strain of rabies has been found in Haldimand County, as shown […]

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  • Reportable Diseases

    Health Protection and Promotion Act. Ontario Regulation 559/91. REPORTABLE DISEASES – Updated December 4, 2013

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  • Ringworm

    PDF/Printer Friendly Version What is ringworm? Ringworm is a group of skin infections caused by mold-like fungi called dermatophytes that live on the dead tissues of the skin, hair, and nails. Children can catch ringworm directly from an infected person, pet or soil. Your child can also catch the infection from hats, combs, clothing or […]

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  • Salmonella

    PDF/Printer Friendly Version What is salmonellosis? Salmonellosis is a food borne infection caused by salmonella bacteria. Typical symptoms include the sudden onset of stomach pain accompanied by headache, diarrhea, fever, loss of appetite, nausea and sometimes vomiting. Dehydration, especially among infants and the elderly, may be severe. Although deaths are usually uncommon, the infection is […]

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  • Scabies

    PDF/Printer Friendly Version What is it? Scabies is a condition caused by tiny insects called mites. Scabies is a nuisance, not an infection. The condition is common in children, but anyone can get it. Scabies has nothing to do with cleanliness. Signs and Symptoms? The mites that cause scabies burrow into the skin and cause […]

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  • Scarlet Fever

    PDF/Printer-Friendly Version What is it? Scarlet fever is a bacterial infection caused by B-haemolytic streptococci. Symptoms include a sore throat, tonsillitis, fever and a fine, red skin rash. It is most common in children three to 15 years old. Scarlatina is the mildest and most common form of scarlet fever. Signs and Symptoms? Scarlet fever […]

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  • Shingles

    PDF/Printer Friendly Version What is shingles? Shingles is a painful rash due to the same virus that causes chickenpox. After a chickenpox infection, the virus does not leave the body but hides along the nerve paths of the skin. Shingles occurs when the dormant chickenpox virus becomes active again. Who can get shingles? Everyone who […]

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  • Skin Test

    What is tuberculosis? Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the tuberculosis germ. TB usually causes disease in the lungs, but may affect other parts of the body. How is it spread? TB is only contagious when diagnosed as active disease in the lungs or larynx. It is spread by coughing. Usually, close prolonged […]

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  • Syphilis

    PDF/Printer Friendly Version What is it? Syphilis is a serious disease. It spreads by genital, anal or oral sex with an infected person. The first sign is a painless sore (ulcer) where the germ entered the body. The second stage is a body rash, which comes weeks later. Syphilis affects the whole body. Syphilis symptoms […]

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  • Trichomonas Vaginalis

    PDF/Printer Friendly Version What is it? Trichomonas (Trich; Trichomoniasis) is caused by a microscopic parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis. It is usually sexually transmitted but it can also survive for 24 hours on wet towels and bathing suits. This fact explains why trichomonas occasionally occurs without sexual contact. What are the symptoms? Women Men No symptoms. […]

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  • Tuberculosis (TB)

    What is Tuberculosis? Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by bacteria. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain. If not treated properly, TB disease can be fatal. TB is spread through the air, through coughing or sneezing. Latent TB Infection and […]

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  • Tuberculosis Screening For Long Term Care and Retirement Home Residents

    All residents who move into a Nursing Home or Retirement Home setting must be screened for TB to make sure they are not showing signs or symptoms of active TB, and to prevent the spread of the germ to others.

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  • Viral Meningitis

    PDF/Printer Friendly Version What is it? Viral meningitis is a disease that causes the tissues that cover the brain and spinal cord to be inflamed. It is caused by an infection with one of several types of viruses. What are the symptoms? Symptoms may not be the same for every person. The more common symptoms […]

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  • West Nile Virus

    What is West Nile virus? West Nile virus is a virus mainly transmitted to people through the bite of an infected mosquito. Mosquitoes transmit the virus after becoming infected by feeding on the blood of birds which carry the virus. Most people infected with the virus have no symptoms or they have flu-like symptoms, such […]

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  • Yersiniosis

    PDF/Printer Friendly Version What is it? Yersiniosis is an illness caused by bacteria called yersinia enterocolitica. These bacteria live in several different kinds of animals, but are mostly found in the throats of pigs. How is it spread? People usually become infected with the bacteria by eating raw or undercooked pork that is contaminated. Drinking […]

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